Copositive programming for mixed-binary quadratic optimization via Ising solvers

Recent years have seen significant advances in quantum/quantum-inspired technologies capable of approximately searching for the ground state of Ising spin Hamiltonians. The promise of leveraging such technologies to accelerate the solution of difficult optimization problems has spurred an increased interest in exploring methods to integrate Ising problems as part of their solution process, with existing approaches ranging from direct transcription to hybrid quantum-classical approaches rooted in existing optimization algorithms. Due to the heuristic and black-box nature of the underlying Ising solvers, many such approaches have limited optimality guarantees. While some hybrid algorithms may converge to global optima, their underlying classical algorithms typically rely on exhaustive search, making it unclear if such algorithmic scaffolds are primed to take advantage of speed-ups that the Ising solver may offer. In this paper, we propose a framework for solving mixed-binary quadratic programs (MBQP) to global optimality using black-box and heuristic Ising solvers. We show the exactness of a convex copositive reformulation of MBQPs, which we propose to solve via a hybrid quantum-classical cutting-plane algorithm. The classical portion of this hybrid framework is guaranteed to be polynomial time, suggesting that when applied to NP-hard problems, the complexity of the solution is shifted onto the subroutine handled by the Ising solver.

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