Dynamic Repositioning in Free-Floating Bike Sharing Systems Using Approximate Dynamic Programming

In bike sharing systems, the spatiotemporal imbalance of bike flows leads to shortages of bikes in some areas and overages in some others, depending on the time of the day, resulting in user dissatisfaction. Repositioning needs to be performed timely to deal with the spatiotemporal imbalance and to meet customer demand in time. In this … Read more

Multi-period Workload Balancing in Last-Mile Urban Delivery

In the daily dispatching of urban deliveries, a delivery manager has to consider workload balance among the couriers to maintain workforce morale. We consider two types of workload: incentive workload, which relates to the delivery quantity and affects a courier’s income, and effort workload, which relates to the delivery time and affects a courier’s health. … Read more

Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce: Home Delivery in Megacities

To deliver to consumers in densely populated urban areas, companies often employ a two-echelon logistics system. In a two-echelon logistics system, the entry point for goods to be delivered in the urban area is a city distribution center (CDC). From a CDC the goods are transported to an intermediate facility, from where the goods are … Read more