# Fast iterative solution of saddle point problems in optimal control based on wavelets

In this paper, wavelet techniques are employed for the fast numerical solution of a control problem governed by an elliptic boundary value problem with boundary control. A quadratic cost functional involving natural norms of the state and the control is to be minimized. Firstly the constraint, the elliptic boundary value problem, is formulated in an appropriate weak form that allows to handle varying boundary conditions explicitly: the boundary conditions are treated by Lagrange multipliers, leading to a saddle point problem. This is combined with a fictitious domain approach in order to cover also more complicated boundaries. Deviating from standard approaches, we then use (biorthogonal) wavelets to derive an equivalent infinite discretized control problem which involves only \ell_2-norms and -operators. Classical methods from optimization yield the corresponding optimality conditions in terms of two weakly coupled (still infinite) saddle point problems for which a unique solution exists. For deriving finite-dimensional systems which are uniformly invertible, stability of the discretizations has to be ensured. This together with the \ell_2-setting circumvents the problem of preconditioning: all operators have uniformly bounded condition numbers independent of the discretization. In order to numerically solve the resulting (finite-dimensional) linear system of the weakly coupled saddle point problems, a fully iterative method is proposed which can be viewed as an inexact gradient scheme. It consists of a gradient algorithm as an outer iteration which alternatingly picks the two saddle point problems, and an inner iteration to solve each of the saddle point problems, exemplified in terms of the Uzawa algorithm. It is proved here that this strategy converges, provided that the inner systems are solved sufficiently well. Moreover, since the system matrix is well-conditioned, it is shown that in combination with a nested iteration strategy this iteration is asymptotically optimal in the sense that it provides the solution on discretization level J with an overall amount of arithmetic operations that is proportional to the number of unknowns N_J on that level. Finally, numerical results are provided.

## Citation

Preprint, March 2001, Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Universitaet Bonn, Germany, to appear in: Comput. Optim. Appl.