It is well known that the standard (linear) knapsack problem can be solved exactly by dynamic programming in O(nc) time, where n is the number of items and c is the capacity of the knapsack. The quadratic knapsack problem, on the other hand, is NP-hard in the strong sense, which makes it unlikely that it can be solved in pseudo-polynomial time. We show however that the dynamic programming approach to the linear knapsack problem can be modified to yield a highly effective constructive heuristic for the quadratic version. In our experiments, the lower bounds obtained by our heuristic were consistently within a fraction of a percent of optimal. Moreover, the addition of a simple local search step enabled us to obtain the optimal solution of all instances considered.

## Citation

Eventually published as: F. Djeumou Fomeni & A.N. Letchford (2014) A dynamic programming heuristic for the quadratic knapsack problem. INFORMS J. Comput., 26(1), 173–182.