In large-scale optimization, when either forming or storing Hessian matrices are prohibitively expensive, quasi-Newton methods are often used in lieu of Newton's method because they only require first-order information to approximate the true Hessian. Multipoint symmetric secant (MSS) methods can be thought of as generalizations of quasi-Newton methods in that they attempt to impose additional requirements on their approximation of the Hessian. Given an initial Hessian approximation, MSS methods generate a sequence of possibly-indefinite matrices using rank-2 updates to solve nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems. For practical reasons, up to now, the initialization has been a constant multiple of the identity matrix. In this paper, we propose a new limited-memory MSS method for large-scale nonconvex optimization that allows for dense initializations. Numerical results on the CUTEst test problems suggest that the MSS method using a dense initialization outperforms the standard initialization. Numerical results also suggest that this approach is competitive with both a basic L-SR1 trust-region method and an L-PSB method.
Report 2021-1, Wake Forest University, July 2021.