Imposing contiguity constraints in political districting models

Beginning in the 1960s, techniques from operations research began to be used to generate political districting plans. A classical example is the integer programming model of Hess et al. (Operations Research 13(6):998–1006, 1965). Due to the model’s compactness-seeking objective, it tends to generate contiguous or nearly-contiguous districts, although none of the model’s constraints explicitly impose … Read more