We consider 3-partitioning the vertices of a graph into sets $S_1, S_2$ and $S_3$ of specified cardinalities, such that the total weight of all edges joining $S_1$ and $S_2$ is minimized. This problem is closely related to several NP-hard problems like determining the bandwidth or finding a vertex separator in a graph. We show that this problem can be formulated as a linear program over the cone of completely positive matrices, leading in a natural way to semidefinite relaxations of the problem. We show in particular that the spectral relaxation introduced by Helmberg et al.\ (1995) can equivalently be formulated as a semidefinite program. Finally we propose a tightened version of this semidefinite program and show on some small instances that this new bound is a significant improvement over the spectral bound.

## Citation

Janez Povh, School for business and management, Na Loko 2, 8000 Novo Mesto, Slovenia and Franz Rendl, Universitaet Klagenfurt, Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaetsstrasse 65-67, 9020 Klagenfurt, Austria. August 2005.

## Article

View A copositive programming approach to graph partitioning