A Chance-Constrained Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands

Two-echelon distribution systems are often considered in city logistics to maintain economies of scale and satisfy the emission zone requirements in the cities. In this work, we formulate the two-echelon vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands as a chance-constrained stochastic optimization problem, where the total demand of the customers in each second-echelon route should fit … Read more