We introduce and study conic geometric programs (CGPs), which are convex optimization problems that unify geometric programs (GPs) and conic optimization problems such as linear programs (LPs) and semidefinite programs (SDPs). A CGP consists of a linear objective function that is to be minimized subject to affine constraints, convex conic constraints, and upper bound constraints on sums of exponential and affine functions. The conic constraints are the central feature of conic programs such as LPs and SDPs, while upper bounds on combined exponential/linear functions are generalizations of the types of constraints found in GPs. The dual of a CGP involves the maximization of the negative relative entropy between two nonnegative vectors jointly, subject to affine and conic constraints on the two vectors. Although CGPs contain GPs and SDPs as special instances, computing global optima of CGPs is not much harder than solving GPs and SDPs. More broadly, the CGP framework facilitates a range of new applications that fall outside the scope of SDPs and GPs. Specifically, we demonstrate the utility of CGPs in providing solutions to problems such as permanent maximization, hitting-time estimation in dynamical systems, the computation of the capacity of channels transmitting quantum information, and robust optimization formulations of GPs.