In an unnormalized Krylov subspace framework for solving symmetric systems of linear equations, the orthogonal vectors that are generated by a Lanczos process are not necessarily on the form of gradients. Associating each orthogonal vector with a triple, and using only the three-term recurrences of the triples, we give conditions on whether a symmetric system of linear equations is compatible or incompatible. In the compatible case, a solution is given and in the incompatible case, a certificate of incompatibility is obtained. In particular, the case when the matrix is singular is handled. We also derive a minimum-residual method based on this framework and show how the iterates may be updated explicitly based on the triples, and in the incompatible case a minimum-residual solution of minimum Euclidean norm is obtained.

## Citation

arXiv:1409.4937 [math.OC]