We describe PyNumero, an open-source, object-oriented programming framework in Python that supports rapid development of performant parallel algorithms for structured nonlinear programming problems (NLP’s) using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). PyNumero provides three fundamental building blocks for developing NLP algorithms: a fast interface for calculating first and second derivatives with the AMPL Solver Library (ASL), a number of interfaces to efficient linear solvers, and block-structured vectors and matrices based on NumPy, SciPy, and MPI that support distributed parallel storage and computation. PyNumero’s design enables efficient, parallel algorithm development using high-level Python syntax while keeping expensive numerical calculations in fast, compiled implementations based on languages like C and Fortran. To demonstrate the utility of PyNumero, we also present Parapint, a Python package built on PyNumero for parallel solution of dynamic optimization problems. Parapint includes a parallel interior-point solver based on Schur-Complement decomposition. We illustrate the effectiveness of PyNumero for developing parallel algorithms with both code examples and scalability analyses for parallel matrix-vector dot products, parallel solution of structured systems of linear equations using Schur-Complement decomposition, and the parallel solution of a 2-dimensional PDE optimal control problem. Our numerical results show nearly perfect scaling to over 1000 cores for large matrix-vector dot products and structured linear systems. Moreover, we obtain over 360 times speedup for the optimal control example.