The optimal control of gas transport networks was and still is a very important topic for modern economies and societies. Accordingly, a lot of research has been carried out on this topic during the last years and decades. Besides mixed-integer aspects in gas transport network optimization, one of the main challenges is that a physically and technically detailed modeling of transient gas dynamics leads to theoretically and computationally highly demanding models involving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). For further background on the application, historical notes and a detailed discussion of mixed-integer aspects for stationary descriptions we refer to Hante and Schmidt (2023). In this chapter, we focus on the most common modeling approaches concerning transient descriptions, point out the challenges, and summarize important contributions concerning the optimization of the most relevant control parameters for this particular class of problems.