Most optimization problems arising in imaging science involve high-dimensional linear operators and their adjoints. In the implementations of these operators, approximations may be introduced for various practical considerations (e.g., memory limitation, computational cost, convergence speed), leading to an adjoint mismatch. This occurs for the X-ray tomographic inverse problems found in Computed Tomography (CT), where the adjoint of the measurement operator (called projector) is often replaced by a surrogate operator. The resulting adjoint mismatch can jeopardize the convergence properties of iterative schemes used for image recovery. In this paper, we study the theoretical behavior of a panel of primal-dual proximal algorithms, which rely on forward-backward-(forward) splitting schemes, when an adjoint mismatch occurs. We analyze these algorithms by focusing on the resolution of possibly non-smooth convex penalized minimization problems in an infinite-dimensional setting. By using tools from fixed point theory, we show that they can solve monotone inclusions that go beyond minimization problems. Such findings indicate these algorithms can be seen as a generalization of classical primal-dual formulations. The applicability of our findings are also demonstrated through two numerical experiments in the context of CT image reconstruction.
Technical report - April 2022