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Bilevel optimization has recently attracted considerable attention due to its abundant applications in machine learning problems. However, existing methods rely on prior knowledge of problem parameters to determine stepsizes, resulting in significant effort in tuning stepsizes when these parameters are unknown. In this paper, we propose two novel tuning-free algorithms, D-TFBO and S-TFBO. D-TFBO employs a double-loop structure with stepsizes adaptively adjusted by the "inverse of cumulative gradient norms" strategy. S-TFBO features a simpler fully single-loop structure that updates three variables simultaneously with a theory-motivated joint design of adaptive stepsizes for all variables. We provide a comprehensive convergence analysis for both algorithms and show that D-TFBO and S-TFBO respectively require \(O(\frac{1}{\epsilon})\) and \(O(\frac{1}{\epsilon}\log^4(\frac{1}{\epsilon}))\) iterations to find an $\epsilon$-accurate stationary point, (nearly) matching their well-tuned counterparts using the information of problem parameters. Experiments on various problems show that our methods achieve performance comparable to existing well-tuned approaches, while being more robust to the selection of initial stepsizes.

To the best of our knowledge, our methods are the first to completely eliminate the need for stepsize tuning, while achieving theoretical guarantees.

## Article

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