We study network design problems for nonlinear and nonconvex flow models under demand uncertainties. To this end, we apply the concept of adjustable robust optimization to compute a network design that admits a feasible transport for all, possibly infinitely many, demand scenarios within a given uncertainty set. For solving the corresponding adjustable robust mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem, we show that a given network design is robust feasible, i.e., it admits a feasible transport for all demand uncertainties, if and only if a finite number of worst-case demand scenarios can be routed through the network. We compute these worst-case scenarios by solving polynomially many nonlinear optimization problems. Embedding this result for robust feasibility in an adversarial approach leads to an exact algorithm that computes an optimal robust network design in a finite number of iterations. Since all of the results are valid for general potential-based flows, the approach can be applied to different utility networks such as gas, hydrogen, or water networks. We finally demonstrate the applicability of the method by computing robust gas networks that are protected from future demand fluctuations.

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