Optimal Eco-Routing for Hybrid Vehicles with Mechanistic/Data-Driven Powertrain Model Embedded

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are regarded as an important (transition) element of sustainable transportation. Exploiting the full potential of HEVs requires (i) a suitable route selection and (ii) suitable power management, i.e., deciding on the split between combustion engine and electric motor usage as well as the mode of the electric motor, i.e., driving or … Read more

Dynamic Optimization with Complementarity Constraints: Smoothing for Direct Shooting

We consider optimization of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) with complementarity constraints (CCs) of algebraic state pairs. Formulating the CCs as smoothed nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP) functions leads to a smooth DAE, allowing for the solution in direct shooting. We provide sufficient conditions for well-posedness. Thus, we can prove that with the smoothing parameter going to zero, … Read more