On the use of the saddle formulation in weakly-constrained 4D-VAR data assimilation

This paper discusses the practical use of the saddle variational formulation for the weakly-constrained 4D-VAR method in data assimilation. It is shown that the method, in its original form, may produce erratic results or diverge because of the inherent lack of monotonicity of the produced objective function values. Convergent, variationaly coherent variants of the algorithm … Read more

A Note on Lerner Index, Cross-Elasticity and Revenue Optimization Invariants

We study common properties of retail pricing models in a general framework of calculus of variations. In particular, we observe that for any demand model, optimal de-seasoned revenue rate divided by price elasticity is time invariant. We also obtain a generalization of a well known inverse relationship between price elasticity of demand and Lerner index. … Read more

Characterizations of error bounds for lower semicontinuous functions on metric spaces

By using a variational method based on Ekeland’s principle, we give characterizations of the existence of so-called global and local error bounds, for lower semicontinuous functions defined on complete metric spaces. We thus provide a systematic and synthetic approach to the subject, emphasizing the special case of convex functions defined on arbitrary Banach spaces, and … Read more