A Survey on Bilevel Optimization Under Uncertainty

Bilevel optimization is a very active field of applied mathematics. The main reason is that bilevel optimization problems can serve as a powerful tool for modeling hierarchical decision making processes. This ability, however, also makes the resulting problems challenging to solve—both in theory and practice. Fortunately, there have been significant algorithmic advances in the field … Read more

On a Computationally Ill-Behaved Bilevel Problem with a Continuous and Nonconvex Lower Level

It is well known that bilevel optimization problems are hard to solve both in theory and practice. In this short note, we highlight a further computational difficulty when it comes to solving bilevel problems with continuous but nonconvex lower levels. Even if the lower-level problem is solved to ɛ-feasibility regarding its nonlinear constraints for an … Read more

Exact Methods for Discrete Γ-Robust Interdiction Problems with an Application to the Bilevel Knapsack Problem

Developing solution methods for mixed-integer bilevel problems is known to be a challenging task – even if all parameters of the problem are exactly known. Many real-world applications of bilevel optimization, however, involve data uncertainty due to some kind of bounded rationality. We study mixed-integer min-max problems with a follower who faces uncertainties regarding the … Read more

A Gentle and Incomplete Introduction to Bilevel Optimization

These are lecture notes on bilevel optimization. The class of bilevel optimization problems is formally introduced and motivated using examples from different fields. Afterward, the main focus is on how to solve linear and mixed-integer linear bilevel optimization problems. To this end, we first consider various single-level reformulations of bilevel optimization problems with linear or … Read more

A Robust Approach for Modeling Limited Observability in Bilevel Optimization

In bilevel optimization, hierarchical optimization problems are considered in which two players – the leader and the follower – act and react in a non-cooperative and sequential manner. In many real-world applications, the leader may face a follower whose reaction deviates from the one expected by the leader due to some kind of bounded rationality. … Read more