Derivative-Free Superiorization: Principle and Algorithm

The superiorization methodology is intended to work with input data of constrained minimization problems, that is, a target function and a set of constraints. However, it is based on an antipodal way of thinking to what leads to constrained minimization methods. Instead of adapting unconstrained minimization algorithms to handling constraints, it adapts feasibility-seeking algorithms to … Read more

Projected subgradient minimization versus superiorization

The projected subgradient method for constrained minimization repeatedly interlaces subgradient steps for the objective function with projections onto the feasible region, which is the intersection of closed and convex constraints sets, to regain feasibility. The latter poses a computational difficulty and, therefore, the projected subgradient method is applicable only when the feasible region is “simple … Read more

Superiorization: An optimization heuristic for medical physics

Purpose: To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently-developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. Methods: The superiorization methodology is presented as a heuristic solver for a … Read more

Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the … Read more

On the Effectiveness of Projection Methods for Convex Feasibility

The effectiveness of projection methods for solving systems of linear inequalities is investigated. It is shown that they have a computational advantage over some alternatives and that this makes them successful in real-world applications. This is supported by experimental evidence provided in this paper on problems of various sizes (up to tens of thousands of … Read more

A Note on the Behavior of the Randomized Kaczmarz Algorithm of Strohmer and Vershynin

In a recent paper by Strohmer and Vershynin (J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 15:262–278, 2009) a “randomized Kaczmarz algorithm” is proposed for solving consistent systems of linear equations {ai, x = bi }m i=1. In that algorithm the next equation to be used in an iterative Kaczmarz process is selected with a probability proportional to ai2. … Read more

On diagonally-relaxed orthogonal projection methods

We propose and study a block-iterative projections method for solving linear equations and/or inequalities. The method allows diagonal component-wise relaxation in conjunction with orthogonal projections onto the individual hyperplanes of the system, and is thus called diagonally-relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP). Diagonal relaxation has proven useful in accelerating the initial convergence of simultaneous and block-iterative projection … Read more

Transfer function restoration in 3D electron microscopy via iterative data refinement

Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) is a powerful tool for visualizing complex biological systems. As any other imaging device, the electron microscope introduces a transfer function (called in this field the Contrast Transfer Function, CTF) into the image acquisition process that modulates the various frequencies of the signal. Thus, 3D reconstructions performed with these CTF-affected projections … Read more

Block-Iterative Algorithms with Underrelaxed Bregman Projections

The notion of relaxation is well understood for orthogonal projections onto convex sets. For general Bregman projections it was considered only for hyperplanes and the question of how to relax Bregman projections onto convex sets that are not linear (i.e., not hyperplanes or half-spaces) has remained open. A definition of underrelaxation of Bregman projections onto … Read more