On Piecewise Linear Approximations of Bilinear Terms: Structural Comparison of Univariate and Bivariate Mixed-Integer Programming Formulations

Bilinear terms naturally appear in many optimization problems. Their inherent nonconvexity typically makes them challenging to solve. One approach to tackle this difficulty is to use bivariate piecewise linear approximations for each variable product, which can be represented via mixed-integer linear programming (MIP) formulations. Alternatively, one can reformulate the variable products as a sum of … Read more

On Convex Lower-Level Black-Box Constraints in Bilevel Optimization with an Application to Gas Market Models with Chance Constraints

Bilevel optimization is an increasingly important tool to model hierarchical decision making. However, the ability of modeling such settings makes bilevel problems hard to solve in theory and practice. In this paper, we add on the general difficulty of this class of problems by further incorporating convex black-box constraints in the lower level. For this … Read more

Presolving Linear Bilevel Optimization Problems

Linear bilevel optimization problems are known to be strongly NP-hard and the computational techniques to solve these problems are often motivated by techniques from single-level mixed-integer optimization. Thus, during the last years and decades many branch-and-bound methods, cutting planes, or heuristics have been proposed. On the other hand, there is almost no literature on presolving … Read more

A Survey on Mixed-Integer Programming Techniques in Bilevel Optimization

Bilevel optimization is a field of mathematical programming in which some variables are constrained to be the solution of another optimization problem. As a consequence, bilevel optimization is able to model hierarchical decision processes. This is appealing for modeling real-world problems, but it also makes the resulting optimization models hard to solve in theory and … Read more

Why there is no need to use a big-M in linear bilevel optimization: A computational study of two ready-to-use approaches

Linear bilevel optimization problems have gained increasing attention both in theory as well as in practical applications of Operations Research (OR) during the last years and decades. The latter is mainly due to the ability of this class of problems to model hierarchical decision processes. However, this ability makes bilevel problems also very hard to … Read more

The Cost of Decoupling Trade and Transport in the European Entry-Exit Gas Market with Linear Physics Modeling

Liberalized gas markets in Europe are organized as entry-exit regimes so that gas trade and transport are decoupled. The decoupling is achieved via the announcement of technical capacities by the transmission system operator (TSO) at all entry and exit points of the network. These capacities can be booked by gas suppliers and customers in long-term … Read more

Closing the Gap in Linear Bilevel Optimization: A New Valid Primal-Dual Inequality

Linear bilevel optimization problems are often tackled by replacing the linear lower-level problem with its Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions. The resulting single-level problem can be solved in a branch-and-bound fashion by branching on the complementarity constraints of the lower-level problem’s optimality conditions. While in mixed-integer single-level optimization branch- and-cut has proven to be a powerful extension … Read more

Outer Approximation for Global Optimization of Mixed-Integer Quadratic Bilevel Problems

Bilevel optimization problems have received a lot of attention in the last years and decades. Besides numerous theoretical developments there also evolved novel solution algorithms for mixed-integer linear bilevel problems and the most recent algorithms use branch-and-cut techniques from mixed-integer programming that are especially tailored for the bilevel context. In this paper, we consider MIQP-QP … Read more

The Impact of Neighboring Markets on Renewable Locations, Transmission Expansion, and Generation Investment

Many long-term investment planning models for liberalized electricity markets either optimize for the entire electricity system or focus on confined jurisdictions, abstracting from adjacent markets. In this paper, we provide models for analyzing the impact of the interdependencies between a core electricity market and its neighboring markets on key long-run decisions. This we do both … Read more

There’s No Free Lunch: On the Hardness of Choosing a Correct Big-M in Bilevel Optimization

One of the most frequently used approaches to solve linear bilevel optimization problems consists in replacing the lower-level problem with its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions and by reformulating the KKT complementarity conditions using techniques from mixed-integer linear optimization. The latter step requires to determine some big-M constant in order to bound the lower level’s dual feasible … Read more