On the Formulation Dependence of Convex Hull Pricing

Convex hull pricing provides a potential solution for reducing out-of-market payments in wholesale electricity markets. This paper revisits the theoretical construct of convex hull pricing and explores its important but underappreciated formulation-dependence property. Namely, convex hull prices may change for different formulations of the same unit commitment problem. After a conceptual exposition of the property, … Read more

Economic Interpretation of Demand Curves in Multi-product Electricity Markets

In the absence of direct demand-side bids for certain reliability products in the wholesale electricity markets, Independent System Operators (ISOs) traditionally use fixed demand requirements with penalty factors to clear the market. This approach does not allow proper tradeoffs between reliability and cost due to the inelasticity of the fixed requirements. Therefore, ISOs have been … Read more

A Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Computing Convex Hull Prices

Electricity markets worldwide allow participants to bid non-convex production offers. While non-convex offers can more accurately reflect a resource’s capabilities, they create challenges for market clearing processes. For example, system operators may be required to execute side payments to participants whose costs are not covered through energy sales as determined via traditional locational marginal pricing … Read more

On Electricity Market Equilibria with Storage: Modeling, Uniqueness, and a Distributed ADMM

We consider spot-market trading of electricity including storage operators as additional agents besides producers and consumers. Storages allow for shifting produced electricity from one time period to a later one. Due to this, multiple market equilibria may occur even if classical uniqueness assumptions for the case without storages are satisfied. For models containing storage operators, … Read more

Pricing in Multi-Interval Real-Time Markets

This paper examines multi-interval real-time markets in the context of US independent system operators (ISOs). We show that current ISO implementations that settle only the upcoming interval of the multi-interval solution can create incentive problems. Fundamentally, this is the result of each successive optimization problem treating historical losses as sunk costs. To solve the incentive … Read more

Endogenous Price Zones and Investment Incentives in Electricity Markets: An Application of Multilevel Optimization with Graph Partitioning

In the course of the energy transition, load and supply centers are growing apart in electricity markets worldwide, rendering regional price signals even more important to provide adequate locational investment incentives. This paper focuses on electricity markets that operate under a zonal pricing market design. For a fixed number of zones, we endogenously derive the … Read more

Payment Mechanisms for Electricity Markets with Uncertain Supply

This paper provides a framework for deriving payment mechanisms for intermittent, flexible and inflexible electricity generators who are dispatched according to the optimal solution of a stochastic program that minimizes the expected cost of generation plus deviation. The first stage corresponds to a pre-commitment decision, and the second stage corresponds to real-time generation that adapts … Read more

Pricing wind: a revenue adequate, cost recovering uniform auction for electricity markets with intermittent generation

With greater penetration of renewable generation, the uncertainty faced in electricity markets has increased substantially. Conventionally, generators are assigned a pre-dispatch quantity in advance of real time, based on estimates of uncertain quantities. Expensive real time adjustments then need to be made to ensure demand is met, as uncertainty takes on a realization. We propose … Read more

Risk-averse portfolio selection of renewable electricity generator investments in Brazil: An optimised multi-market commercialisation strategy

Investment decisions in renewable energy sources such as small hydro, wind power, biomass and solar are frequently made in the context of enormous uncertainty surrounding both intermittent generation and the highly volatile electricity spot prices that are used for clearing of trades. This paper presents a new portfolio-based approach for selecting long-term investments in small-scale … Read more

Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets: The Effects of Market Splitting and Network Fee Regimes

We propose an equilibrium model that allows to analyze the long-run impact of the regulatory environment on transmission line expansion by the regulator and investment in generation capacity by private firms in liberalized electricity markets. The model incorporates investment decisions of the transmission operator and private firms in expectation of an energy-only market and cost-based … Read more