On a Tractable Single-Level Reformulation of a Multilevel Model of the European Entry-Exit Gas Market with Market Power

We propose a framework that allows to quantitatively analyze the interplay of the different agents involved in gas trade and transport in the context of the European entry-exit system. While previous contributions focus on the case of perfectly competitive buyers and sellers of gas, our novel framework considers the mathematically more challenging case of a … Read more

A PDE-Constrained Generalized Nash Equilibrium Approach for Modeling Gas Markets with Transport

We investigate a class of generalized Nash equilibrium problems (GNEPs) in which the objectives of the individuals are interdependent and the shared constraint consists of a system of partial differential equations. This setup is motivated by the modeling of strategic interactions of competing firms, which explicitly take into account the dynamics of transporting a commodity, … Read more

Long-run market equilibria in coupled energy sectors: A study of uniqueness

We propose an equilibrium model for coupled markets of multiple energy sectors. The agents in our model are operators of sector-specific production and sector-coupling technologies, as well as price-sensitive consumers with varying demand. We analyze long-run investment in production capacity in each sector and investment in coupling capacity between sectors, as well as production decisions … Read more

A Tractable Multi-Leader Multi-Follower Peak-Load-Pricing Model with Strategic Interaction

While single-level Nash equilibrium problems are quite well understood nowadays, less is known about multi-leader multi-follower games. However, these have important applications, e.g., in the analysis of electricity and gas markets, where often a limited number of firms interacts on various subsequent markets. In this paper, we consider a special class of two-level multi-leader multi-follower … Read more

Multi-period investment pathways – Modeling approaches to design distributed energy systems under uncertainty

Multi-modal distributed energy system planning is applied in the context of smart grids, industrial energy supply, and in the building energy sector. In real-world applications, these systems are commonly characterized by existing system structures of different age where monitoring and investment are conducted in a closed-loop, with the iterative possibility to invest. The literature contains … Read more

The Impact of Neighboring Markets on Renewable Locations, Transmission Expansion, and Generation Investment

Many long-term investment planning models for liberalized electricity markets either optimize for the entire electricity system or focus on confined jurisdictions, abstracting from adjacent markets. In this paper, we provide models for analyzing the impact of the interdependencies between a core electricity market and its neighboring markets on key long-run decisions. This we do both … Read more

Optimal Design of Retailer-Prosumer Electricity Tariffs Using Bilevel Optimization

We compare various flexible tariffs that have been proposed to cost-effectively govern a prosumer’s electricity management – in particular time-of-use (TOU), critical-peak-pricing (CPP), and a real-time-pricing tariff (RTP). As the outside option, we consider a fixed-price tariff (FP) that restricts the specific characteristics of TOU, CPP, and RTP, so that the flexible tariffs are at … Read more

Endogenous Price Zones and Investment Incentives in Electricity Markets: An Application of Multilevel Optimization with Graph Partitioning

In the course of the energy transition, load and supply centers are growing apart in electricity markets worldwide, rendering regional price signals even more important to provide adequate locational investment incentives. This paper focuses on electricity markets that operate under a zonal pricing market design. For a fixed number of zones, we endogenously derive the … Read more

Nonconvex Equilibrium Models for Gas Market Analysis: Failure of Standard Techniques and Alternative Modeling Approaches

This paper provides a first approach to assess gas market interaction on a network with nonconvex flow models. In the simplest possible setup that adequately reflects gas transport and market interaction, we elaborate on the relation of the solution of a simultaneous competitive gas market game, its corresponding mixed nonlinear complementarity problem (MNCP), and a … Read more

A Multilevel Model of the European Entry-Exit Gas Market

In entry-exit gas markets as they are currently implemented in Europe, network constraints do not affect market interaction beyond the technical capacities determined by the TSO that restrict the quantities individual firms can trade at the market. It is an up to now unanswered question to what extent existing network capacity remains unused in an … Read more